Trees: Tree Truths | Science Trek


JOAN CARTAN-HANSEN, HOST: TREES DO MORE THAN JUST MAKE OUR WORLD PRETTY. THEY GIVE US OXYGEN, KEEP OUR AIR CLEAN, PROVIDE HOMES, FOOD, MEDICINE AND PREVENT EROSION. FIND OUT MORE ABOUT TREES. WHAT IS THE HEAVIEST? WHAT IS THE TALLEST? IT’S A TREE.>>A TREE IS A PLANT. IT’S A SPECIAL KIND OF PLANT P BECAUSE IT BUILDS UP STRENGTH BY PRODUCING WOOD. TREES HAVE FIVE BASIC PARTS: THE ROOTS, THE TRUNK, THE BRANCHES, THE LEAVES, AND THE FLOWERS OR SEEDS.>>ROOTS ARE WHAT TREES USE TO COLLECT WATER AND NUTRIENTS. THEY ALSO SPREAD OUT TO HELP KEEP A TREE STANDING UPRIGHT.>>ROOTS OF A 150-FOOT TALL TREE STRETCH UNDER THE EARTH FOR AN AREA THE SIZE OF A SOCCER FIELD.>>THE TRUNK IS THE TREE’S SUPPORT AND TRANSPORT SYSTEM. THE CENTER PART OF THE TRUNK IS CALLED THE HEARTWOOD. IT’S MADE UP OF DEAD CELLS. THE NEXT LAYER IS THE SAPWOOD, IT CONTAINS A SYSTEM OF TUBES LIKE STRAWS. THE NEXT LAYER IS THE CAMBIUM. IT MAKES NEW SAPWOOD AND NEW BARK EACH YEAR, ALLOWING THE TREE TO GROW WIDER. THE OUTSIDE LAYER IS THE TREE’S BARK. THE OUTER BARK PROTECTS AND INSULATES THE TREE. THE INNER BARK OR PHYLUM CARRIES SAP OR SUGAR TO THE LEAVES AND THE REST OF THE TREE. BARK VARIES A LOT FROM TYPE OF TREE TO TYPE OF TREE. SOME OF IS SO UNIQUE THAT YOU CAN IDENTIFY THE TREE JUST BY LOOKING AT THE BARK.>>YOU CAN TELL HOW OLD A TREE IS BY LOOKING AT ITS TRUNK. EVERY YEAR A TREE GROWS, IT ADDS A NEW GROWTH RING. COUNT THE RINGS AND YOU KNOW HOW OLD THE TREE IS.>>THE WAY A TREE SPREADS ITS BRANCHES DEPENDS UPON ITS SPECIES. TREES REACH OUT TO EXPOSE THEIR LEAVES TO THE SUN. TOGETHER THE BRANCHES AND THE LEAVES OR NEEDLES MAKE UP THE TREE’S CANOPY AND LIKE YOU, TREES NEED FOOD. EXCEPT THAT TREES MAKE THEIR OWN FOOD. THEY USE A PROCESS CALLED PHOTOSYNTHESIS. WATER AND NUTRIENTS ARE SENT UP FROM THE ROOTS TO THE LEAVES. THE LEAVES TAKE IN CARBON DIOXIDE FROM THE AIR. USING ENERGY FROM THE SUN, THE LEAVES COMBINE THE WATER AND THE CARBON DIOXIDE TO MAKE SUGARS THAT THE TREE USES TO FEED ITSELF. AND THEN THE PROCESS, THE LEAVES RELEASE OXYGEN AND WATER VAPOR INTO THE AIR. TREES ALSO PRODUCE SEEDS. MANY TREES PRODUCE A FLOWER THAT’S POLLENATED AND GROWS SEEDS BUT SOME TREES PRODUCE THE FRUIT WE EAT LIKE APPLES AND PEARS. THEIR SEEDS ARE PROTECTED INSIDE THE FRUIT.>>A PINECONE IS A KIND OF FRUIT. IT CONTAINS A PINE TREE’S SEEDS. THE SEEDS ARE DISPERSED BY THE WIND, TAKE ROOT ON THE GROUND AND START GROWING A NEW TREE. THERE ARE TWO BASIC KINDS OF TREES, BROAD LEAF AND CONIFER. BROAD LEAF OR SOMETIMES CALLED DECIDUOUS TREES HAVE LEAVES THAT BUD OUT IN THE SPRING AND GROW FULL AND LUSH IN THE SUMMER. AND THEN THE LEAVES TURN COLOR IN THE AUTUMN AND DROP TO THE GROUND. ALMOST ALL CONIFER TREES HAVE DARK GREEN NEEDLES THAT STAY ON YEAR ROUND. CONIFER TREES BASICALLY HAVE TWO KINDS OF NEEDLES. SOME HAVE SHORT NEEDLES THAT LOOK AND KIND OF FEEL LIKE COMBS. AND OTHERS HAVE LONG NEEDLES THAT COME IN BUNDLES.>>ONE KIND OF CONIFER TREE DOES CHANGE COLOR IN THE FALL. TAMARACKS TURN A BEAUTIFUL YELLOW AND THEN GO BACK TO GREEN IN THE SPRING.>>TREES PLAY AN IMPORTANT PART IN THE ENVIRONMENT AND IN OUR LIVES. THEY SHADE OUR HOMES, PROTECT OUR SOIL, AND GIVE ANIMALS AND PEOPLE A PLACE TO LIVE. WE GET PAPER, LUMBER, MEDICINE, FRUIT, NUTS, EVEN MAPLE SYRUP FROM TREES. AN ENVIRONMENTAL — DEFORESTATION AND OVERCROWDING CAN HARM TREES AND FORESTS. TREES ARE VERY GOOD AT ADAPTING TO THE LAND AROUND THEM. THEY CAN OUTLIVE ALL OTHER VING THINGS. BUT WE HUMANS NEED TO MAKE SURE WE PROTECT THE AIR, WATER AND SOIL SO TREES CAN GROW. AND WE NEED TO PLANT TREES AND TAKE CARE OF OUR FORESTS TO IMPROVE THE ENVIRONMENT. TREES ARE ESSENTIAL TO ALL OF US. CARTAN-HANSEN: IF YOU WANT TO LEARN MORE, HEAD TO THE SCIENCE TREK WEBSITE. OR CHECK OUR RELATED VIDEOS AND IF YOU LIKE SCIENCE TREK, BE SURE TO CLICK THE SUBSCRIBE BUTTON TO CATCH OUR NEWEST VIDEOS.

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